Exam 3

Nuclear, Kinetics, and Inorganic

What the Student Brings to Exams
  • official UT ID card (with your picture and name on it)
  • a simple scientific calculator (not a graphing calculator)
  • a pencil(s) and eraser
  • memorized formulas in your head - not on paper or anything else
  • nothing else is allowed
What we provide for the Exams
  • A printed copy of the exam (every exam has a unique version number on it).
  • An answer sheet for the exam. This is a bubblesheet for your answers.
  • An exam cover page that has ALL needed conversion factors and data. No formulas will be given.
  • A periodic table of the elements with symbols, atomic number, and atomic weights.

What Formulas & Concepts the Student Should Memorize
Nuclear - key concepts/definitions

Know how to balance a nuclear reaction.

Know the definitions and differences in the various types of nuclear decay/radiation types: fusion, fission, alpha decay, beta decay, positron emission, gamma rays/emission.

Know the definition of binding energy and how that relates to \(E = mc^2\).

Chemical Kinetics Formulas

\(a {\rm A} + b {\rm B} \rightarrow c {\rm C} + d {\rm D}\)

\({\rm reaction \; rate} =\) \(-{\Delta[{\rm A}]\over a\Delta t} = -{\Delta[{\rm B}]\over b\Delta t} = {\Delta[{\rm C}]\over c\Delta t} = {\Delta[{\rm D}]\over d\Delta t}\)

\({\rm rate} = k[{\rm A}]^x[{\rm B}]^y\cdots\)

\([{\rm A}]_0 - [{\rm A}] = kt \hskip24pt t_{1/2}={[{\rm A}]_0\over 2k}\)

\(\ln\left({[{\rm A}]_0 \over [{\rm A}]}\right) = kt \hskip24pt t_{1/2}={\ln2\over k}\)

\({1\over[{\rm A}]} - {1\over[{\rm A}]_0} = k t\hskip24pt t_{1/2}={1\over k[{\rm A}]_0}\)

\(k = A\,e^{-E_{\rm a}/RT}\)

\(\ln k = {-E_{\rm a}\over R}\left({1\over T}\right) + \ln A\)

\(\ln\left({k_2\over k_1}\right) = {E_{\rm a}\over R}\left({1\over T_1} - {1\over T_2}\right)\)

Lewis Acid/Base Theory

A Lewis base donates an electron pair (the ligand). A Lewis acid accepts an electron pair (the metal atom or cation). This is a dative bond in general although with metals and ligands the name coordinate covalent bond is more common.

Know the following common ligands:

monodentate charged: the halides, hydroxide, cyanide

monodentate neutral: ammonia, water, pyridine (py), carbon monoxide

bidentate charged: oxalate (ox)

bidentate neutral: ethylenediamine (en), bipyridine (bpy), phenanthroline (phen)

PLUS - if given in a formula, you should be able to recognize other ligands and their denticities.

Know How to Count electrons for Complex Ions (18-Electron Rule)

Remember that the ligands provide a core set of electrons. For example, in a octahedral complex, the ligands provide 12 electrons. The metals then add to the ligand number via their d-orbital electrons and possibly their s-orbital electrons depending on the charge.

What we provide on the exam cover page or additional handout page

Periodic Table

Conversion factors
    (like masses of protons, neutrons, etc...)

  • Constants
    • R = 8.314 J/mol K
    • R = 0.08206 L atm/mol K
  • Data
    • most "data" will be in the question itself

Learning Outcomes for Nuclear Chemistry

Students will be able to...

  1. Explain the macroscopic observables associated with nuclear change and the microscopic or chemists view of nuclear change.
  2. Identify and define various types of nuclear transmutation including fission, fusion and decay reactions.
  3. Use proper isotopic notation to write down and balance a nuclear reaction.
  4. State and compare the differences and similarities between a nuclear change and a chemical change.
  5. Recall and properly use Einstein’s theory of relativity equation, E = mc2, to calculate the amount of energy released upon a nuclear change.
  6. Define binding energy and mass defect and be able to calculate each for a given nucleus.
  7. Understand and explain the concept of ionizing radiation and distinguish between the three different types of radiation.
  8. Understand and explain the concept of isotopic stability including the band of stability.
  9. Be familiar with the units used to quantify nuclear decay
  10. Understand the concept of rate of change and half life in the context of nuclear decay.
  11. Understand the basics of nuclear chemistry applications: nuclear power, medical treatment, isotopic labeling, and carbon dating.

Learning Outcomes for Chemical Kinetics

Students will be able to...

  1. Understand the concept of rate of change associated with a given chemical reaction and how it can be measured.
  2. Determine rate law of chemical change based on experimental data.
  3. Be able to identify the reaction order for a chemical change.
  4. Understand the concept of pseudo-first order kinetics and when they apply.
  5. Apply integrated rate equations to solve for the concentration of chemical species during a reaction of different orders.
  6. Understand the concept of mechanism and using rate law data predict whether or not a proposed mechanism is viable or not.
  7. Recall and explain why certain factors such as concentration, temperature, medium and the presence of a catalyst will affect the speed of a chemical change.
  8. Interpret a reaction coordinate diagram and determine if such a diagram supports a given single or multistep mechanism, including the concept and depiction of any transition states and reaction intermediates.
  9. Understand the concept of an activation energy in the context of the transition state and be able to calculate the activation energy given some experimental data.
  10. Recall, manipulate and properly employ the Arrhenius Law.
  11. Explain the function and purpose of a catalyst.

Learning Outcomes for Inorganic Chemistry

Students will be able to...

  1. Understand the fundamental differences between ionic, covalent and coordination bonds.
  2. Recall from CH301 general trends in reactivity and bonding and how these trends help organize elements in the periodic table.
  3. Understand trends in hydration energies and oxidation states of the transition metals.
  4. Be able to identify common organic ligands used to construct coordination complexes, and learn how certain ligands interact with transition metal ions.
  5. Understand basic substitution reactions involving ligands and transition metal ions.
  6. Be able to identify different coordination geometries in transition metal complexes, and use coordination geometry to predict the reactivity of coordination complexes.
  7. Understand the basics of crystal field theory and crystal field stabilization energy, and use these to predict the electronic configurations of transition metal coordination complexes.
  8. Relate electronic configurations to the basic spectroscopic properties of coordination complexes.
  9. Relate electronic configurations to the basic magnetic properties of coordination complexes.
  10. Calculate the "spin-only" magnetic moment of simple coordination complexes.