- official UT ID card (with your picture and name on it)
- a simple scientific calculator (not a graphing calculator)
- a pencil(s) and eraser
- memorized formulas in your head - not on paper or anything else
- nothing else is allowed

- A printed copy of the exam (every exam has a unique version number on it).
- An answer sheet for the exam. This is a bubblesheet for your answers.
- An exam cover page that has ALL needed conversion factors and data. No formulas will be given.
- A periodic table of the elements with symbols, atomic number, and atomic weights.

\(a\,{\rm A} + b\,{\rm B} \rightleftharpoons c\,{\rm C} + d\,{\rm D}\)

mass action: \( \displaystyle{ {a_{\rm C}^c \cdot a_{\rm D}^d} \over {a_{\rm A}^a \cdot a_{\rm B}^b} }\) (activities, \(K\))

mass action: \(\displaystyle{[{\rm C}]^c[{\rm D}]^d\over[{\rm A}]^a[{\rm B}]^b}\) (concentrations, \(K_{\rm c}\))

mass action: \(\displaystyle{P_{\rm C}^{\,c}P_{\rm D}^{\,d}\over P_{\rm A}^{\,a}P_{\rm B}^{\,b}}\) (gases, \(K_{\rm p}\))

\(\Delta G = \Delta G^\circ + RT\ln Q\)

\(\Delta G^\circ = -RT\ln K\)

\(K = e^{-\Delta G^\circ\over RT}\)

if *Q < K* shift right →

if *Q > K* ← shift left

if *Q = K* no change ⇌

Van't Hoff Equation: \(\ln\left({K_2\over K_1}\right) = {\Delta H\over R}\left({1\over T_1} - {1\over T_2}\right)\)

**some equilibrium conditions**

- all concentrations and pressures are NOT changing
- kinetics: rate
_{forward}= rate_{reverse} - thermo: \(\Delta G = 0\)
- mass action: \(Q = K\)
- free energy of the system is at a minimum for the stated conditions

**acid** = a proton donor

**base** = a proton acceptor

\(K_{\rm w} = {\rm [H^+][OH^-]}\)

\(\rm pH = -log[H^+] \hskip24pt [H^+] = 10^{-pH}\)

\(\rm pOH = -log[OH^-] \hskip24pt [OH^-] = 10^{-pOH}\)

\(\displaystyle{K_{\rm a} = {\rm {[H^+][A^-]}\over [HA]}}\)

\(\displaystyle{K_{\rm b} = {\rm {[OH^-][BH^+]}\over [B]}}\)

conjugate pairs: \(K_{\rm w} = K_{\rm a}K_{\rm b}\)

\(\rm pH = p{\it K}_{\rm a} + \log\left({[A^-]\over [HA]}\right)\)

Periodic Table

Conversion factors

- Constants
*K*_{w}= 1.0 × 10^{-14}*R*= 8.314 J/mol K*R*= 0.08206 L atm/mol K

- Tables of Data
- Table for Weak Acids (name, formula, \(K_{\rm a}\))
- Table for Weak Bases (name, formula, \(K_{\rm b}\))
- Table for Polyprotic Acids (name, formula, \(K_{\rm a}\)'s)

Students will be able too...

- Describe the relationship between free energy and equilibrium
- Convert Δ
*G*to*Q, as well as*Δ*G*° to*K*and vice versa. - Know the importance of the activity of a species and how it relates to concentration, pressure, and equilibrium.
- Write the mass action expression for homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.
- Determine new values for
*K*when combining multiple reactions. - Determine if a system is at equilibrium and if not which direction the reaction will shift to achieve equilibrium.
- Know the difference between
*K*_{p}and*K*_{c}and be able to convert between the two. - Set up and solve a RICE table for a multitude of various reaction types.
- Calculate the concentration/pressure of all species at equilibrium.
- Show a complete understanding of Le Chatelier's principle.
- Predict the response of a reaction to an applied stress (concentration, pressure, volume, temperature) both qualitatively and quantitatively.
- Calculate the new value of
*K*when the temperature changes to a new value.

Students will be able to...

- Understand the strength of an acid (or base) as determined by the percent of ionization in solution.
- Identify strong and weak acids and bases.
- Identify acid/base conjugate pairs and their relative strengths.
- Understand the process of auto-ionization of water and what is meant by acidic, basic, and neutral.
- Know the value of
*K*_{w}at 25°C, and the relationship between*K*_{a}and*K*_{b}for a conjugate pair. - Convert between hydronium ion concentration, hydroxide ion concentration, pH and pOH for a given solution.
- Determine the pH of a strong acid or base solution.
- Determine the pH of a weak acid or weak base solution.
- Determine the pH of the solution made from the salt of a weak acid or the salt of a weak base.
- Recognize and predict the components of a buffer solution.
- Calculate the pH of a buffer solution, and a buffer solution after the addition of strong acid or strong base.
- Determine the majority species for acid/base solutions as well as the pH following neutralization.
- Interpret a titration curve plot including calculating the concentration and
*K*_{a}or*K*_{b}for the analyte. - Understand the concept of an acid/base indicator, and determine which indicators are appropriate for a given titration.
- Determine the protonation state (or overall charge) for a polyprotic species at a particular pH.
- Apply concepts from equilibria to acid/base problems