Exam 1

Physical Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria

What the Student Brings to Exams
  • official UT ID card (with your picture and name on it)
  • a simple scientific calculator (not a graphing calculator)
  • a pencil(s) and eraser
  • memorized formulas in your head - not on paper or anything else
  • nothing else is allowed
What we provide for the Exams
  • A printed copy of the exam (every exam has a unique version number on it).
  • An answer sheet for the exam. This is a bubblesheet for your answers.
  • An exam cover page that has ALL needed conversion factors and data. No formulas will be given.
  • A periodic table of the elements with symbols, atomic number, and atomic weights.

What Formulas the Student Should Memorize

\(q = m\cdot C_{\rm s}\cdot \Delta T\)

\(q = m \cdot \Delta H_{\rm transition}\)

\( \ln\left({P_2\over P_1}\right) = {\Delta H_{\rm vap}\over R}\left({1\over T_1}-{1\over T_2}\right) \)

\(\Delta H_{\rm solution} = \Delta H_{\rm lattice} + \Delta H_{\rm hydration}\)

\( C_{\rm gas} = k_{\rm H} \; P_{\rm gas} \)

\(P_{\rm solution} = \chi_{\rm solvent}\cdot P^\circ \)

\(\Delta T_{\rm f} = i\cdot k_{\rm f} \cdot m \)

\(\Delta T_{\rm b} = i\cdot k_{\rm b} \cdot m \)

\(\Pi = i\cdot MRT \)

\( K_{\rm sp} = [{\rm M}^{y+}]^x\,[{\rm A}^{x-}]^y \hskip16pt {\rm for\;salt} \;\; {\rm M}_x {\rm A}_y \)

What we provide on the exam cover page or additional handout page

Periodic Table

Conversion factors

All physical constants and data needed for the exam
    such as: \(R \; K_{\rm sp} \; k_{\rm b} \; k_{\rm f} \; k_{\rm H} \; \Delta H_{\rm transition} \; C_{\rm s} \)

Learning Outcomes for Physical Equilibrium

Students will be able to...

  1. Demonstrate mastery of and compound and reaction stoichiometry (mole to mole conversion and grams to mole conversions).
  2. Predict the sign of ΔG, ΔH, and/or ΔS for physical change
  3. Understand the concept of spontaneous change and equilibrium in the context of phase changes, including calculating phase transition temperatures from standard thermodynamic data.
  4. Interpret heating curves and calculate heat required for phase transitions and temperature changes.
  5. Describe phase transitions (macroscopically and microscopically).
  6. Understand phase in the context of Boltzmann distribution.
  7. Understand how intermolecular forces, temperature, and solute concentration affect vapor pressure.
  8. Interpret phase diagrams and identify normal boiling and melting point, critical point, and triple point.
  9. Describe the factors that favor the dissolution process in terms of intermolecular forces and thermodynamics (eg.: enthalpies of solution, hydration, lattice energy, entropies of solution, free energy of solution, and temperature).
  10. Describe how T and P (Henry’s Law) each affect solubility.
  11. Define and perform calculations for common concentration units: molarity, molality, and mole fraction.
  12. Perform calculations and understand the concepts of the 4 colligative properties: vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure.
  13. Describe the dissociation of ionic compounds in solution and the effects on colligative properties (van’t Hoff factor, i ).

Learning Outcomes for Solubility Equilibrium

Students will be able to...

  1. Understand the concept of saturation and how it relates to the solubility product, Ksp.
  2. Write total and net ionic equations to identify spectator ions.
  3. Quantitatively determine molar solubility from Ksp.
  4. Quantitatively determine Ksp from molar solubility.
  5. Convert general (common) solubility terms to molar solubility.
  6. Understand and apply the "common ion effect" on solubility.
  7. Given concentrations of specific ions, predict if a precipitate will form (amount or concentration) using Qsp vs Ksp.